Word Meaning Legal System

Adjective. [`ˈliːgəl`] with legal effect or force. Instructions from a judge to the jury before it begins deliberations on the substantive questions to be answered and the legislation to be applied. Although the length of constitutions varies considerably, most details are usually devoted to the legislative and executive branches and the relationship between them. Federal systems, of course, have bicameral legislation. But also many unitary systems, where the House of Commons is directly elected and the House of Lords is composed of those who can represent rural interests (France) or have particular competences (Ireland). In most countries (but not in the United States), the House of Commons can ultimately override the House of Lords. Some systems are a mixed parliamentary/presidential structure. In France, for example, the president is far from being a mere titular head of state.

Since 1962, he has been directly elected by the people, appoints the Prime Minister, has emergency powers and signs decrees resulting from the extensive legislative functions of the executive. In cooperation with the government, he or she may submit bills to the people, which are adopted by referendum, bypassing parliament, dissolving the National Assembly and calling new elections. A full-time lawyer hired by federal courts to legally defend defendants who cannot afford a lawyer. The judiciary administers the Federal Defence Counsel Programme in accordance with criminal law. Governmental body empowered to settle disputes. Judges sometimes use the term “court” to refer to themselves in the third person, as in “the court read the pleadings.” Latin, which means “in law”. Something that exists by law. Latin, which means “you have the body”. A writ of habeas corpus is usually a court order that requires law enforcement to produce a detainee they are holding and to justify the detainee`s continued detention. Federal judges receive habeas corpus petitions from state prison inmates who claim their prosecutor`s office violated state-protected rights in some way.

Latin, which means in the chamber of a judge. Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private. Latin, which means “of one`s own will”. Often designates a court acting in a case without either party asking for it. Today, there are only a few countries whose legal system is exclusively religious. On the other hand, a large number of countries have secular systems, and this characteristic can be integrated into their legal structure, as in the French and Russian constitutions of 1958 or the very first words of the First Amendment of the US Constitution: “Congress shall not adopt a law concerning a religious institution”. A written statement filed in court or an appeal that explains a party`s legal and factual arguments. Private law defines who is considered to have legal capacity and deals with their legal capacity (for the protection of the very young or mentally ill). These natural persons may create other “artificial” legal entities such as associations, foundations and companies.

Most systems accept that criminal responsibility is not attributable to specific groups of people: very young children or people with serious mental illness. The systems also recognize a number of mitigating circumstances such as self-defence or provocation. The judicial officer who supervises the administrative functions, in particular the management of the flow of cases by the court. The clerk`s office is often referred to as the central nervous system of a court. As a general rule, there are few generalizations that can be made between different constitutions. First, constitutions seek to regulate the division of powers, functions and duties among various agencies and government officials, and to define the relationship between them and the public. Second, no constitution, no matter how good, can protect a political system from effective usurpation. Third, those in power in many countries are more or less completely ignorant of the constitution. Fourth, even when constitutions do, none is complete: each operates within a matrix of compromises, customary laws or jurisprudence.

Fifth, most begin by identifying (at least on paper) the constituent authority (as “the people”) and often invoke the deity (i.e., Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Pakistan, Switzerland). Sixth, as a rule, they separate the legislative, executive and judicial organs of the State. Seventh, they usually contain or incorporate a bill of rights. Eighth, they often provide a method of repealing laws and other unconstitutional instruments, including the Bill of Rights. Ninth, they approach the international scene only in general terms and in practice confer extensive powers on the (federal) executive. Finally, they deal with the status of international law, either by giving it direct internal effect or by denying it. A legal procedure to deal with the debt problems of individuals and companies; in particular, a case filed under one of the chapters of title 11 of the United States Code.